A review can signify a particular kind of intellectual, academic or scholarly journal or periodical publication with a primary emphasis on surveying and/or reviewing other publications. It can also refer to a specialized section for the publication of notices, reviews and critiques within a more general purpose publication. It is equally likely, however, that the term may also have different connotations in some contemporary publications.
One of the earliest publications with the term Review in its title was the first Edinburgh Review, (1755-1756) published by the Select Society, at the time of the Scottish Enlightenment. The purpose was to "demonstrate 'the progressive state of learning in this country' and thereby to incite Scots 'to a more eager pursuit of learning, to distinguish themselves, and to do honour to their country.'" As means to such ends, the Review would "give a full account of all books published in Scotland within the compass of half a year; and ... take some notice of such books published elsewhere, as are most read in this country, or seem to have any title to draw the public attention."
This was the first of four similarly named publications emanating from Scotland. The second, named the Edinburgh Magazine and Review was published from 1773-1776. The third Edinburgh Review (1802-1929) became one of the most influential English language publications of the nineteenth century. The third Edinburgh Review was not only the longest lasting but also published the most illustrious group of authors, including Thomas Carlyle, Thomas B. Macauley, John Stuart Mill, Bertrand Russell, Sir Walter Scott, and Herbert Spencer. The latest, fourth, iteration, named The New Edinburgh Review began publication in 1969 and in 1984 adopted the more historically significant title Edinburgh Review along with the motto "To gather all the rays of culture into one."
In the United States, The Saturday Review (1924-1986), was originally named The Saturday Review of Literature. In its time, SR as it was known, published work by a wide variety of literary luminaries in the United States, including the poets Robert Frost and John Ciardi, several of the members of the Algonquin Round Table and others. The name was changed in 1952.
The New York Review of Books, [https:/www.lrb.co.uk|The London Review of Books], The Los Angeles Review of Books and the book review sections of many larger newspapers, notably the New York Times Book Review Section. Claremont Review of Books declares itself "the proof that conservatism is a living and civilising force in American intellectual life, and a powerful challenge to the dominance of the academic left"; a quotation attributed to the British conservative culture critic Roger Scruton.
Among academic journals with a disciplinary focus, numerous publications in biology, chemistry, computer science, education, history, library science, physics, political science, sociology, and numerous medical, nursing and other health sciences include the term Review in their titles.